History is witness of the times, the torch of truth, the life of memory, the teacher of life and the messenger of antiquity CICERO (106-43BC) De oratore.
IN his magnum opus and literary tour de force entitled “ Heauton Timoroumentos” the philosopher and essayist Publius Terentius Afer said, “Humo sum ; humani nihil ame alienum puto” ( I am a man; and nothing human is foreign to me). It is this drive to ensure that nothing human is foreign to man that gave birth to History. History is an authentic chronicle and a verifiable documentation of ancient and modern events.
The matrix of history is buttressed and consolidated by inputs from oral tradition of folklores, preserved by memories and recounted to the existing generation to document for posterity. The elements of written, divinatory and numerological submissions etc also contribute as resource archives from which historians, historiographers and archaeologists can get factual information. Before the art of writing was introduced, man, from the Paleolithic through the Mesolithic to the Neolithic ages used Primitive means to document events.
Fundamental and remarkably eventful occurrences in history like the Nile Valley Civilization, the Cretan Civilization, the Sumerian Civilization, the rise of Babylon, Assyria, Chaldea, Phonecia, Persia, the Roman Empire, the early history of Greece and Christianity were documented in history. But the art of writing and documentation did not arrive in Africa until the 16th century, when European historians, from a European perspective, had already documented most of Africa’s history.
Although the king of the ancient Mali Empire, Mansa Kankan Musa (1307-1337 A.D) set up the Sankore University in Timbuktu in 1310 A.D, it was a University for the propagation of Islamic studies (Arabic education), as against what was prevalent, the Western Education and the art of writing. This exposed Africa’s early history to the whims and caprices of history dabblers, sentimentality, historical prejudices, myths, tribal jingoism, misplaced patriotism, falsehoods, judgmental fallacies, arrant controversies and apocryphal submissions, making African History and anthology of incongruities.
When our African historians came on stage, they depended largely on the historical plinth already created by European or foreign historians. Where they had to get the factual basis of the history of their own people, it was sometimes coloured by their own prejudices, fabrications and intellectual bankruptcy. African history is to some extent a splendid documentation of falsehood, laced with lies, inconsistent with reason, at variance with logic and grossly out of tune with facts.
African history records that the Ashanti people who were Akan- speaking people subject to the then Denkyra State came out of Lake Bosomtwi, a small crater lake in central Ashanti. And to further consolidate the bases of their unity, Ashanti caused a “golden stool” in which the spirit of Ashanti ancestors was supposed to be hidden to descend on the Knees of Osei Tutu the ruler of Kumasi. The assembled Ashanti rulers acclaimed Osei Tutu as their superior and invested him with powers over all the Ashanti people.
One version of Africa history records that the Yoruba’s migrated from the east in about the 10th or 11th century, that their ancestors belonged to the Quresh tribe of Mecca in Saudi Arabia and that their first father was Lamrud or Namrud who had an idol-priest called Ya-harba. The word Ya-harba is an Arabic word-meaning warrior or army general. When Islam was introduced in Mecca in the 7th century Lamrud, Ya-harba and their supporters refused to embrace Islam. The Islamic Jihadists took up arms against Lamrud and his pagan supporters. In the ensuing battle Lamrud was defeated and they fled the city, crossing the red sea to Africa. They got to Egypt in 648A.D. they moved to Tripoli, Algeria and Morocco. During this journey the idol-priest, Ya-harbar, consulted his oracle, and they were told to follow the oracle’s direction. They followed the oracle’s direction until they arrived at Ile-Ife in 900A.D.
During the journey to IIe-Ife Lamrud and his idol-priest, Ya-harba, died on the way. It was therefore Oduduwa who led the Yoruba’s to IIe-Ife. This is why Oduduwa and not Lamrud or ya-harba is referred to today as the father of the Yorubas. Even though Ya-harba could not reach IIe-ife his people decided to immortalize his name by calling their settlement Ya-harba, which was later converted to Yoruba. One other version says the Yoruba progenitor, Oduduwa fell from heaven.
Some years ago, the Oba of Benin, Omo Noba Nedo, Uku Akpolokpolo, Oba Erediauwa launched his book entitled “I REMAIN SIR, YOUR OBEDIENT SERVANT”. He opened the Pandora’s box of Yourba/Benin history, when he claimed that the Yoruba’s migrated from Benin where prince Ekaladerhan (Yoruba’s Oduduwa) escaped from execution, and that after a horrendous and marathon journey through the thick forest he arrived at IIe—Ife, where he became their king. When the Binis discovered that tradition made it obligatorily imperative for him to come back home, they requested for him. But he turned down the request and in turn sent his son Oranmiyan to commence the present dynasty in Benin.
This historical submission drew the ire of the Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuwade Olubuse II. He said that the Oba of Benin whose dynasty began in the last decade of the 12th century was an Ife Prince lent to the Bini people at their request after the reign of the Ogiso’s ended in Benin. The Ife monarch asserted that Oduduwa descended directly from heaven through a chain to where is today known as Ife in the company of four hundred deities. They both however agree that Oranmiyan was the son sent by Ekaladerhan (bini), Oduduwa (Yoruba) and whose son, Eweka, born of a Benin woman, became the progenitor of all Benin Obas.
It is not the concern of this writer to look at which of the submission is plausible, true or false. But to observe that there is a trend in African history, which is based on a tribal renaissance-a kind of Risorgimento that stimulates a rewriting of history. This is a prevailing situation across Nigeria and nay Africa. Why did the Oba of Benin wait for so long to rewrite a part of Benin history? Is it possible for Ekaladerhan to have trekked such a long distance to Ife by foot and through a thick forest? So nobody accompanied the Bini Ekaladerhan? And why would a man or fugitive form justice be called back to come and become a king? How is it possible for Oduduwa to have fallen from heaven?
These are glaring cases of half-truths, philistanization of history and deliberate mythologization of the origin of a people. The case of a ‘golden stool’ being invoked from heaven for the Osei Tutu of Ashanti and the Ashanti people haven come out of a lake are sheer myths, frills and thrills on the edge of perfidious manipulations. History is supposed to be a pedantic hallmark, a check valve, a vertical and horizontal integrator of a people’s life and a factual record of past events. A reliance on the facts of history enables people to understand themselves and strategize for the future. History is a barometric format and a lodestone to the future. It is the intrinsic paradigm, steer man, master, cicerone and conductor of a people’s development.
In Warri, Delta state, the Ijaw, Urhobo and Itsekiri, have been sunken in