EVERY year, over 300,000 graduates are churned out from the tertiary institutions nationwide. This number grows yearly and translates into more and more unemployed people littering the streets of Nigerian cities. Below are some of the effects of unemployment in Nigeria.
Mental health: Mental health problems like, low self-confidence, feeling unworthy, depression and hopelessness. With the low income and the frustration involved in it, the recently unemployed may develop negative attitudes toward common things in life and may feel that all sense of purpose is lost. Frequent emotions could be – low self-esteem, inadequateness and feeling dejected and hopeless.
Health diseases: The unemployment overall tension can increase dramatically general health issues of individuals.
Tension at home: Quarrels and arguments at home front which may lead to tension and increased numbers of divorces etc.
Political issues: Loss of trust in administration and the government which may lead to political instability
Tension over taxes rise: Unemployment also brings up discontent and frustration amongst the tax paying citizens. In order to meet the demands of the unemployment fund the government many a times may have to increase the taxes thus giving way to restlessness amongst the tax paying citizens.
Crime and violence: Increase in the rate of crime in the society
Suicide cases: Increase in the rate of suicide attempts and actual suicides as well.
Stigma: Unemployment brings with more than just ‘no work’. It also brings with it the disgrace that the person has to bear. Nobody likes to be termed as unemployed.
Employment gaps: To further complicate the situation the longer the individual is out of job the more difficult it becomes to find one. Employers find employment gasps as a negative aspect. No one wants to hire a person who has been out of work for some time even when there’s no fault of the individual per say.
Lose of skills’ usage: The unemployed is not able to put his/her skills to use. And in a situation where it goes on for too long the person may have to lose some of his/her skills.
The Role Of Government.
It is the duty and responsibility of the government and different policy makers to provide such an environment and conditions which are conducive for the youth entrepreneurial activities. Different policy initiatives encourage and motivate young people to come up with new ideas and start their own youth enterprises.
This will first reduce the incidence of unemployment to a great extent and as such would have dealt a massive blow to the problem of youth restiveness.
To do this effectively, the policymakers need to realize that public spending is not going to contribute towards the welfare of the youth. It is the policies of the states that must be created in a way that will help to stimulate the younger people as well as their parents and communities to invest in themselves.
The main essence of implementing youth friendly policies is they are not as costly as direct investments but require a lot of political trade-off to actually implement the policies so that they benefit each and every young person living in the country.
According to The Next Generation Nigeria report, Nigeria’s future is at a time of rapid economic, demographic and social change.  The report states that Nigeria stands on the threshold of what could be the greatest transformation in its history – with population growth slowing, and its ‘baby boom’ generation entering the workforce. By 2030, it will be one of the few countries in the world with young workers in plentiful supply.
The benefits of this to Nigeria are clear, according to the report: If the country continues with recent economic growth, improves education and health standards, and creates jobs, the average Nigerian could be 3 times richer by 2030 – and over 30 million people will be lifted out of poverty.
But the risks are as great as the opportunities: If Nigeria fails to plan for its next generation, it faces ethnic and religious conflict and radicalization, as a result of growing numbers of young people frustrated by a lack of jobs and opportunities.
Nigeria needs to create 25 million jobs over the next ten years – and move its focus away from oil, which contributes 40% to national GDP, but only employs 0.15% of the population.
The words ‘youth’ and ‘restiveness’ have become so commonly used together in the last couple of years that it seems to have taken on a life of its own. In the last decade and more there has been a proliferation of cases all over the country and indeed the world, of youth agitations which have tons of people dead and valuable infrastructure as well as personal properties lost and destroyed.
A sustained protestation embarked upon to enforce a desired outcome from a constituted authority by an organised body of youths, fits the label of youth restiveness. It is also a combination of any action or conduct that constitutes unwholesome, socially unacceptable activities engaged in by the youths in any community.
It is a phenomenon which in practice has led to a near breakdown of law and order, low productivity due to disruption of production activities, increasing crime rate, intra-ethnic hostilities, and harassment of prospective developers and other criminal tendencies.
This scourge has been around for a long time and it looks as though it is defying solutions. Maybe the question that needs to be asked is what is truly responsible for this expression of dissatisfaction by the youth? Have their complaints over the years not been heard or attended to? Is there more to the killings and destruction than just drawing attention to the needs they want met? Are the youths trying to draw society’s attention to themselves more than the issues they appear to be fronting? These and more are the questions we would try to tackle head on today.
In Nigeria for instance, the Niger Delta region which is unarguably the bedrock of the oil industry in Nigeria permeated the news for a lengthy period of time as the youths of that region tried various means of getting government and oil companies to pay attention to their  dire conditions of living and alleviate their sufferings since according to them, the resources which is building the nation is flowing from their land so by virtue of that they should also be partakers of its benefits.
This strife led to a rise in kidnapping and vandalization of oil pipelines as well as other vices that were being perpetrated. After a period of …. Years, the Nigerian government intervened and the Amnesty program was created to help deliver some of the promises which government had made to the youths in those areas.
The baton was soon handed over to the Eastern Nigeria. Increase in the rate of armed robbery attacks, kidnappings as well as unbridled thuggery became the order of the day.
Today the Northern part of Nigeria has literally erupted with unrivalled violence. Bomb blasts, kidnaps and killings of Nigerians and others have become the prevailing trend. Despite beefing up of security in these areas, the problems still looms. This situation begs the questions, ‘’what is the government of the day willing to do to put a permanent end to these problems.
Unemployment:  Unemployment is a hydra-headed monster which exists among the youth in all developing countries. The unemployment rate in Nigeria was last reported at 23.9 percent in 2011. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) has put the figure of unemployed Nigerians in the first half of the year at 23.9 per cent, up from 21.1 per cent in 2010 and 19.7 per cent in 2009.
The National Population Commission (NPC) has said the country’s population has risen from the 140,431,790 it was five years ago when the last national headcount was taken, to 167,912,561 as at October 2011.This represents an annual population growth rate of 5.6 million people.
Minister for Agriculture, Dr. Akinwumi Adesina noted that Nigeria’s unemployment rate is spiralling upwards, growing at 11 per cent yearly, According to him “Youth unemployment rate is over 50 per cent. Our unemployment rate is spiralling, driven by the wave of four million young people entering the workforce every year with only a small fraction able to find formal employment.
The rising tide of unemployment and the fear of a bleak future among the youth in African countries have made them vulnerable to the manipulations of agents’ provocateurs”.
These include aggrieved politicians, religious demagogues, and greedy multinationals that employ these youths to achieve their selfish ambitions.
It is clearly evident that the absence of job opportunities in developing countries is responsible for youth restiveness with disastrous consequences.
This leaves in its trails; low productivity, intra-ethnic hostilities, unemployment, poverty, prostitution and environmental degradation.
· Exuberance:
Very often, the youth are described as full of youthful exuberance. This raw energy has of late been channelled into unwholesome and socially unacceptable venture that threaten the very fabrics of the community. Also the issue of availability and accessibility of drugs in street corners which predispose the youth to abnormal behaviours when they come under their influence, adds to youth restiveness.
It is also believed that some disgruntled leaders, elders and politicians in our society resort to recruiting youth for settling scores or using them against perceived enemies. With this trend, the activities of these youth have degenerated to outright criminality. Once these youth get mobilised for these nefarious activities, they become uncontrollable and the society suffers.
· Poverty
Poverty connotes inequality and social injustice and this traumatizes the poor. More than 70 per cent of people in Nigeria are in abject poverty, living below the poverty line, and one-third survive on less than one US dollar a day . This figure includes an army of youth in urban centres in Nigeria who struggle to eke out a living by hawking chewing sticks, bottled water, handkerchiefs, belts, etc.
The sales per day and the profit margin on such goods are so small that they can hardly live above the poverty line. Disillusioned, frustrated, and dejected, they seek an opportunity to express their anger against the state.
Scholars have overtime agreed that there is a link among poverty, loss of livelihood, inequality, and youth restiveness as evidenced by the numerous violent protests against the wielders of power in Nigeria.
· Inadequate Educational Opportunities and Resources
Quality education has a direct bearing on national prestige, greatness, and the dwindling resources of government at both federal and state levels as a result of economic meltdown.
· Lack of Basic Infrastructure
Most rural communities and urban slums in Nigeria have no access to potable water, health and communication facilities, electricity, industries, etc. Behind social unrest and youth restiveness in the country is the agitation for equitable distribution of resources.
·Inadequate Communication and Information flow
Communication creates room for sharing information. It helps people express their thoughts and feelings, clarify problems, and consider alternative ways of coping or adapting to their situation. Such sharing promotes social cohesion.
People must have access to communication facilities, to communicate with the people making the decisions that affect them. Sadly, rarely do people in Nigeria participate in decision-making processes on issues that affect their lives.