Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus, called the endometrium, grows outside of the uterus. It’s estimated that about 10 per cent of women of reproductive age have endometriosis.

The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown, but there are several theories. One theory is that endometrial tissue travels through the fallopian tubes and attaches to other parts of the body, such as the ovaries or the lining of the pelvis. Another theory is that endometrial tissue grows in response to certain hormones. Some researchers believe that genetic factors may also play a role. There is no one single cause of endometriosis, and it’s likely that a combination of factors is involved.

Factors involved in endometriosis:

There are several risk factors that can increase a woman’s chances of developing endometriosis. These include never giving birth; a family history of endometriosis; starting menstruation at a young age; menstrual cycles that last less than 27 days or more than 31 days; heavy menstrual bleeding; having certain gene mutations, and low levels of the protein CA-125.
It’s important to remember that not all women with these risk factors will develop endometriosis, and not all women with endometriosis have these risk factors.

Symptoms of endometriosis:

There are a variety of symptoms that can occur with endometriosis, and they can range from mild to severe. Some of the most common symptoms include pelvic pain, including pain before and during periods, during intercourse, and while urinating or having a bowel movement; heavy periods, or bleeding between periods; infertility; fatigue; painful bowel movements; bloating; painful urination; and digestive issues, such as diarrhoea or constipation.

Symptoms can vary from person to person, so it’s important to talk to a doctor if you’re experiencing any of these symptoms.

Treatment and management of endometriosis:

There are several treatment and management options for endometriosis, depending on the severity of the condition. For mild to moderate cases, the doctor may recommend pain relievers, hormone therapy, or surgery. For more severe cases, the doctor may recommend surgery to remove the endometrial tissue. In some cases, the doctor may recommend a hysterectomy, which is the removal of the uterus. However, this is usually only recommended as a last resort. The doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, such as stress management and dietary changes, to help manage the symptoms of endometriosis.

While there is no way to prevent endometriosis, there are some things you can do to help reduce your risk. Some of these include maintaining a healthy weight; exercising regularly; eating a healthy diet; avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption; limiting the use of hormone-based medications, such as birth control pills; reducing stress levels, and eeking help for depression or anxiety, if needed.

Once again, remember that not all women with these risk factors will develop endometriosis, and not all women who develop endometriosis have these risk factors.