WHAT is cancer: Cancer is the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. According to Dr. Abel Uwadiale of Hope Hospital, Kaduna Cancer is a group of disease characterized by the abnormal and unrestrained growth of cells in the body organs or tissue. It is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancers cells can spread to other part of the body through the blood and lymph systems. All cancers begin in cells, the body’s basic unit of life. There are different types of cancer but we will focus on the Breast Cancer.
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops from the breast tissue. According to Miss. Victory Igunbor (RNRN) of Kings Care Hospital Abuja defined breast cancer as the abnormal growth of breast tissue caused by the presence of carcinogenic substances. The fact cause of cancer is said to be unknown but they are predisposing factors.
HEREDITARY – This runs in the family. It can also be referred to as genetics. This is believed to be the primaries cause of cancer about 5% to 10% cases. When a family relation is affected with the disease, it can be contacted by another relative in the family.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS – Recent studies have indicated that exposure to light pollution, sunlight. Environmental pollution etc is a risk factor or cause of breast cancer.
LIFE STYLE – Sedimentary life style like drinking, smoking, and eating of fatty food. Another is the use of contraceptive. This is a possible cause of Breast Cancer.
AGED WOMEN ABOVE 40 YEARS – Have high possibility of being affected with this disease.
PREVIOUS HISTORY OF ABORTION – In the 1980s, the abortion- breast cancer hypothesis posited that induced abortion increased the risk of developing cancer. Research found out that neither miscarriages nor abortions are associated with a heightened risk for breast cancer.
PREVIOUS HISTORY OF OTHER TYPES OF CANCER – According to Miss Victory Igunbor (RNRN) of Kings Care Hospital Abuja. Also confirmed that most cases of Breast Cancer patients in their hospital, have suffered cases of other types of cancer. In an interview conducted at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital – Irrua, one of the cancer patients, admitted of have suffered from kidney cancer before. But she have survived it. She said she was supported by an NGO agency, who supported her with finance for her treatment.
HOW CAN IT BE DETECTED AT AN EARLY STAGE – Breast Cancer can be detected early. This can be done through self breast examination. It is done to detect any lump in the breast. It can also be detected at the third day of menstruation.
SYMPTOMS OF BREAST CANCER – Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in the breast shape, dimpling of the skin, skin irritation or peeling of the breast skin. Fluid coming out of the nipple i.e nipple discharge. Colour changes in the breast, inverted nipple, redness of nipple, shortness of breath or yellow skin.
HOW DEADLY IS BREAST CANCER – Breast Cancer is a deadly disease because according to Dr. Santos Ehevba, he confirmed that many patients, who suffer from breast cancer, die in the cases where it is detected in time, treatment are quickly carried out on the patients. It has also be revealed that, white women are slightly more likely to develop Breast Cancer than American women.
The percentage of Breast Cancer death have fallen about 20% in the past two decade. The death percentage is higher in young women than in older women. Women who have their first child at 35 years have a higher risk of breast cancer.
Presently 87% of women diagnosed with earlier cancers survive at least five years, only 31% of those with metastatic disease live that long.
METHODS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF BRAST CANCER – According to Miss Victory Igunbor (RNRN) King’s Care Hospital – Abuja.
LIMIT ALCOHOL – The more alcohol you drink, the greater the risk of developing cancer. Limit your intake of Beer, wine or Liquor.
DON’T SMOKE- Evidence suggests a link between smoking and breast cancer risk, particularly in premenopausal women. In addition, not smoking is one of the best thing you can do for your over-all health.
CONTROL YOUR WEIGHT- Being over-weight or Obese increases the risk of breast cancer. Particularly after menopause
BEING PHYSICALLY ACTIVE – Physical activities i.e sport activities can help you maintain a healthy weight. Health and Human Service recommends that people partake in vigorous aerobic activity weekly, plus strength training at least twice a week.
BREAST FEED – This is a good role to prevent breast cancer disease. The longer you breast feed, the greater the protective effect.
LIMIT DOSE AND DURATION OF HORMONE THERAPY – Combination hormone therapy for more than three to five years increases the risk of breast cancer. Always consult your doctor and ask for other options especially when taking hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.
AVOID EXPOSURE TO RADIATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION – Research suggests a link between breast cancer and exposure to the chemicals found in some workplaces, gasoline fumes and vehicle exhaust. Reduce your exposure to these environmental pollution.
CONSUME a low-fat diet to reduce overweight and obesity. Consume a healthy diet food.
TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER SURGERY- An operation where doctors cut out cancer tissue. This type of operation is carried out by a surgeon. This process is very common especially in specialist hospitals. It is expensive. Victims of this operation passes through pains and torment during the operation. There is a high percentage of success in the operation especially when it is attended to in time.
CHEMOTHERAPY – This is the use of drugs and medicines to shrink or kill the cancer. The drugs can be pills you take or medicine given in your vein, or sometimes both. These drugs are sold in the pharmacy, but sold or released at doctor’s prescription. Some of these drugs are expensive. When the disease has not spread over organ, the possibility of survival is high. It is done by medical oncologist. They are doctors who treat cancer with medicine.
HORMONAL THERAPY – Blocks Cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow.
BIOLOGICAL THERAPY – Works with your body’s Immune System to help it fight cancer or to control side effects from other cancer treatment. Side effect are how your body react to drugs or other treatments.
RADIATION THERAPY – Using high-energy rays (similar to x-rays) to kill the cancer radiation oncologists are doctors who treat cancer with radiation